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Terrafugia TF-2 Lift + Push

Terrafugia TF-2 Lift + Push

TF-2 Lift + Push Terrafugia Woburn, Massachusetts, USA www.terrafugia.com www.terrafugia-tf2.com Terrafugia achieved widespread publicity after its first aircraft in 2009; the fixed-wing Terrafugia Transition is “the world’s first practical flying car” and the company is now ramping up for production. In late 2017, Terrafugia was acquired by the Chinese company Zhejiang Geely, which owns the Volvo and Lotus car brands. This injected new capital into the Transition production, and gave new urgency to the company’s eVTOL development. As unveiled at Heli-Expo in Feb. 2018, the company is studying two competing concepts under the designation of TF-2. These two different designs are a Vectored Thrust Tiltrotor model and a Lift + Cruise model, and both are considered to be compatible with the Uber Elevate concept. Passengers board a transportation pod, which is transported by ground vehicle to the aircraft and connected prior to liftoff, so the passengers never have to deboard. Proposed Specifications: Configuration Lift + Push Passengers 4 Maximum takeoff weight 8500-9000 lb 3860-4080 kg Payload with 30 min fuel res 900-1100 lb 410-500 kg Max cruise speed 120-130 kts 222-240 km/h Range at max payload 170-215 nm 315-400 km Cost per flight hour $370-$410 Flight Simulation: http://videos.weebly.com/uploads/4/0/5/9/4059119/tf2_v2_edit06_lift_push_806.mp4   Resources: Search eVTOL news posts Website: Terrafugia TF-2 Press Release: Terrafugia Inc: 100-Day Update Since Acquisition by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group, Terrafugia, February 28, 2018 Article: Terrafugia Acquired, eVTOL News, August 23, 2017 Article: Air Mobility Bonanza Beckons Electric VTOL Developers, Vertiflite, March 2017 Article: The Demand for On-Demand Mobility, Vertiflite, Jan 2017 Tags: Terrafugia, Lift + Cruise

TF-X Front View

Terrafugia TF-X

TF-X Terrafugia Woburn, Massachusetts, USA www.terrafugia.com Terrafugia achieved widespread publicity after its first aircraft in 2009; the fixed-wing Terrafugia Transition is “the world’s first practical flying car” and the company is now ramping up for production. In May 2013, Terrafugia unveiled its vision for a four-seat VTOL plug-in hybrid-electric flying car, calling it the TF-X. The company revised the outer mold line (OML) in July 2015, steering the design away from the “open-grill” appearance of the Transition; a one-tenth scale wind tunnel test model of the TF-X, based on the new OML, was displayed that month at AirVenture in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. In late 2015, Terrafugia received a Section 333 exemption from the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to begin to flight test a one-tenth scale TF-X vehicle (approximately 2 ft, or 60 cm, long). An exemption from the FAA was necessary at that time in order to conduct commercial research and development flying a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS). In February 2016, Terrafugia announced that it had completed static load testing of one-tenth scale carbon fiber wings. The original concept, the TF-X, was a hybrid-electric tilt propeller “flying car.” For high-speed forward flight, the TF-X would fold back the blades and tuck the wings and propellers into the sides of the fuselage, using a large ducted fan at the rear for thrust.  The company noted at the time that “Terrafugia’s vision for the future is the TF-X: a mass-market flying car with the potential to revolutionize the way we all get around. An all-electric vehicle with vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) capabilities and computer-controlled flight, the TF-X is the flying car of the future. Terrafugia’s product development roadmap lays the groundwork for achieving this vision through a series of realistic steps over the coming decades.” Specifications: Resources: Search eVTOL news posts Website: Terrafugia TF-X Article: Terrafugia Sale May Accelerate Flying Car Arrival, AOPA, November 20, 2017 Article: Volvo’s parent company wants to sell you a flying car by 2019, Mashable, November 14, 2017 Article: Terrafugia Acquired, eVTOL News, August 23, 2017 Article: Air Mobility Bonanza Beckons Electric VTOL Developers, Vertiflite, March 2017 Article: The Demand for On-Demand Mobility, Vertiflite, Jan 2017 Video: The Terrafugia TF-X™, Terrafugia Inc, July 20, 2015 Tags: Terrafugia, Vectored Thrust

Terrafugia TF-X

Terrafugia Acquired

Terrafugia Acquired Chinese company Zhejiang Geely, which owns the Volvo and Lotus car brands, has reportedly acquired flying car company Terrafugia. One of the only companies in the world to be developing an actual flying car (i.e. a roadable aircraft), Terrafugia is studying the TF-X hybrid-electric VTOL tiltrotor flying car.

Terrafugia TF-2 Tiltrotor

Terrafugia TF-2 Tiltrotor

TF-2 Tiltrotor Terrafugia Woburn, Massachusetts, USA www.terrafugia.com www.terrafugia-tf2.com Terrafugia achieved widespread publicity after its first aircraft in 2009; the fixed-wing Terrafugia Transition is “the world’s first practical flying car” and the company is now ramping up for production. In late 2017, Terrafugia was acquired by the Chinese company Zhejiang Geely, which owns the Volvo and Lotus car brands. This injected new capital into the Transition production, and gave new urgency to the company’s eVTOL development. As unveiled at Heli-Expo in Feb. 2018, the company is studying two competing concepts under the designation of TF-2. These two different designs are a Vectored Thrust Tiltrotor model and a Lift + Cruise model, and both are considered to be compatible with the Uber Elevate concept. Passengers board a transportation pod, which is transported by ground vehicle to the aircraft and connected prior to liftoff, so the passengers never have to deboard. Proposed Specifications: Configuration Tiltrotor Passengers 4 Maximum takeoff weight 7500-8000 lb 3400-3630 kg Payload with 30 min fuel res 900-1100 lb 410-500 kg Max cruise speed 170-180 kts 315-333 km/h Range at max payload 240-300 nm 445-555 km Cost per flight hour $380-$420 Flight Simulation:   Resources: Search eVTOL news posts Website: Terrafugia TF-2 Press Release: Terrafugia Inc: 100-Day Update Since Acquisition by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group, Terrafugia, February 28, 2018 Article: Terrafugia Acquired, eVTOL News, August 23, 2017 Article: Air Mobility Bonanza Beckons Electric VTOL Developers, Vertiflite, March 2017 Article: The Demand for On-Demand Mobility, Vertiflite, Jan 2017 Tags: Terrafugia, Vectored Thrust

Lift + Cruise

Lift + Cruise Completely independent thrusters used for cruise as for lift: AeroMobil 5.0 Aergility ATLIS Aurora Flight Sciences eVTOL EAC Whisper Embraer DreamMaker Flexcraft (unnamed) HoverSurf Formula Kitty Hawk Cora Napoleon Aero VTOL Pipistrel (unnamed) Ray Research VTOL Aircraft Terrafugia TF-2 Lift + Push Urban Aeronautics CityHawk Zee Aero Z-P2 Not what you’re looking for? Check out all eVTOL

Vectored Thrust

Vectored Thrust An eVTOL aircraft that uses any of its thrusters for lift and cruise: A³ Vahana aeroG Aviation aG-4 AirisOne AirspaceX MOBi Aurora Flight Sciences LightningStrike (defunct) Autonomous Flight Y6S Bartini Flying Car Bell Air Taxi Carter Aviation CarterCopter DeLorean Aerospace DR-7 Digi Robotics DroFire Digi Robotics Droxi Dufour aEro2 EVA X01 HopFlyt Venturi JAXA Hornisse 2B Jetoptera J2000 Joby Aviation S2 (defunct) Joby Aviation S4 Karem Butterfly KARI PAV Lilium Jet Moller Skycar M400 Neoptera eOpter Opener BlackFly Piasecki eVTOL Pipistrel (unnamed) PteroDynamics Transwing Rolls-Royce EVTOL Sabrewing Draco-2 Sikorsky VERT SKYLYS Aircraft AO Starling Jet Supervolant Pegasus Terrafugia TF-2 Tiltrotor Terrafugia TF-X Transcend Air Vy 400 VerdeGo Aero PAT200 Vertiia Vickers WAVE eVTOL Vimana (unnamed) VTOL Aviation Abhiyaan XTI Aircraft Trifan 600 Zenith Altitude EOPA Not what you’re looking for? Check out all eVTOL

Bell AirTaxi at Heli-Expo 2018 (Ian Frain photo)

eVTOL at Heli-Expo 2018

eVTOL at Heli-Expo 2018 Vertiflite, May/June 2018 For those who knew to look for it as something potentially revolutionary — rather than some crazy idea for a far-away future — electric VTOL almost broke into the mainstream this year. On Monday, Feb. 26, the day before Heli-Expo began, AHS Executive Director Mike Hirschberg gave a press briefing, entitled, “The Future of Vertical Flight,” providing a perspective on the global vertical flight market and technological development, including the potential of eVTOL. On the show floor, there were three companies exhibiting eVTOL aircraft concepts. Most visible among them was the hybrid-electric Bell Air Taxi. Those attending the show had the opportunity to try the Air Taxi experience, which involved a virtual “elevator” to the top of a skyscraper to enter the cabin and use the virtual reality headset to experience how it will work in the future. Airbus had a large-scale model of its all-electric CityAirbus quadcopter, though it appeared to be largely ignored by the booth staff, who seemed largely ignorant of what it was. Nonetheless, comments by outgoing Airbus Helicopters CEO Guillaume Faury and by Grand Prairie, Texas-based Airbus Helicopters Inc. CEO Chris Emerson made it clear that the company was doubling down on all types of urban air mobility. Across the aisle from Airbus, first-time exhibitor Terrafugia had an unconventional exhibit, which unveiled its TF-2 eVTOL concepts. The company achieved widespread publicity after its first aircraft in 2009: the fixed-wing Terrafugia Transition is heralded as “the world’s first practical flying car” and the company is now ramping up for production. In May 2013, Terrafugia unveiled its vision for a four-seat hybrid electric VTOL flying car, calling it the TF-X, which the company continued development at a low-level over the years while it focused on the Transition. In late 2017, Terrafugia was acquired by Chinese automotive company Zhejiang Geely, which owns the Volvo, Lotus and other car brands. This injected significant capital into the Transition and gave new urgency to the company’s eVTOL development. As announced at Heli-Expo, the company is studying two competing concepts under the designation of TF-2. Both are considered to be compatible with the Uber Elevate concept. Passengers board a transportation pod, which is moved by ground vehicle to the aircraft and connected prior to liftoff, so the passengers never have to de-board. But it wasn’t just the OEMs who were talking about eVTOL. Each of the major engine suppliers — General Electric, Honeywell, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce and Safran Helicopter Engines — are developing applications of turboshaft engines to hybrid-electric propulsion. Pratt, Rolls and Safran all included hybrid-electric VTOL propulsion discussions in their press briefings. Meanwhile, Honeywell has already developed the hybrid-electric propulsion for the Aurora Lightning Strike (see “Thinking Outside the Box Is Inside the Box at Aurora Flight Sciences,” pg. 48), while Safran was selected to demonstrate the hybrid “Eco Mode” on the Airbus Racer compound helicopter. Finally, on Wednesday, Feb. 28, AHS hosted a press conference panel, called “The Electric VTOL Revolution,” …

Uber Flying Taxis in Dubai

Is 2020 Really Possible? (sidebar)

Is 2020 Really Possible? Sidebars to From the Ground Up: Uber Elevate in 2020 Uber said that by the time flight demonstration programs begin in 2020, they will have to validate that they have mitigated the three biggest risks: efficient flights (airspace acceptance), noise (community acceptance) and safety (passenger acceptance). Note that Uber is not funding the development of the aircraft, but is helping to facilitate connections between investors and developers. Once the companies prove their products can operate within the Elevate network and meet the performance and economic requirements, Uber said it would be ready to put its money down and guarantee production volumes and revenues to justify the certification expense. To make the Uber Elevate vision a reality, the flight demonstrations to begin in 2020 will require: Demonstrator aircraft: More than two dozen organizations are currently researching electric and hybrid-electric eVTOL concepts. At least six are currently conducting full-scale flight tests, while several others are completing their aircraft or flying subscale models. Vertiport infrastructure: Uber is working with charging companies like ChargePoint, as well as Hillwood Properties, one of the largest private real estate developers and investors in the US, to establish vertiports at company-owned sites to conduct the tests with distributed nodes around Dallas-Ft. Worth. Similar efforts are underway for Dubai. Airspace: A key aspect of the Elevate ecosystem is the ability to seamlessly operate in Class B airspace. With high-speed, very quiet aircraft, Uber believes eVTOL aircraft will be able to operate in well-defined corridors linking the vertiports, and avoid the airspace restrictions imposed on ad hoc helicopter operations today. Regulations / Certification: The FAA is considering fixed-wing aircraft that take off vertically to be governed under Part 23 as small aircraft. Uber said it hopes that the new eVTOL aircraft can be certified by 2023, but that it has other ways to test the Elevate network before then. In August 2017, the FAA introduced fundamental changes to Part 23 light aircraft certification rules that are designed to facilitate innovation and reduce certification costs. And EASA recently introduced “proportionality” for light aircraft, where manufacturers are allowed to build up to 10 aircraft prior to certification. The FAA is also considering this approach. Pilots or Autonomy: Uber said it plans to fly piloted aircraft for the first five years or so to guarantee safety and develop a database of safe operations in wide-ranging conditions. For this, Uber may need tens of thousands of pilots. The company is working with groups to hire pilots with prior military aviation experience. eVTOL Companies The following electric VTOL aircraft are known to be under development. These include aircraft for a wide range of missions, not just applicable for Uber’s Elevate mission. Winged (updated Aug. 19, 2017) A³ Vahana AirspaceX MOBi Aurora Flight Sciences eVTOL Aurora Flight Sciences LightningStrike Bell Helicopter (unnamed) Carter Aviation/Mooney CarterCopter DeLorean Aerospace DR-7 Flexcraft (unnamed) HopFlyt (unnamed) HoverSurf Drone Taxi R-1 JAXA Hornisse 2B Joby Aviation S4 Lilium Jet Pipistrel (unnamed) Terrafugia TF-X XTI Aircraft Trifan 600 Zee Aero Z-P1 Wingless (updated Aug. 19, 2017) Airbus Helicopters CityAirbus Bartini …

eVTOL Aircraft

The following companies are known to be developing electric VTOL aircraft: A³ Vahana aeroG Aviation aG-4 AeroMobil 5.0 Airbus Helicopters CityAirbus AirisOne AirspaceX MOBi Alauda Airspeeder ASTRO/Passenger Drone Aurora Flight Sciences eVTOL Aurora Flight Sciences LightningStrike Autonomous Flight Y6S Avianovations Hepard Bartini Flying Car Bell Air Taxi Boeing Cargo Aerial Vehicle Carter Aviation CarterCopter Cartivator SkyDrive Davinci ZeroG Dekatone (unnamed) DeLorean Aerospace DR-7 Digi Robotics DroFire Digi Robotics Droxi Dufour aEro2 EAC Whisper EHang 184 Embraer (unnamed) EVA X01 Flexcraft (unnamed) Flike Flyt Aerospace FlytCycle Gravity X HopFlyt Venturi HoverSurf Drone Taxi R-1 HoverSurf Formula HoverSurf Scorpion JAXA Hornisse 2B Jetoptera J2000 Jetpack Aviation (unnamed) Joby Aviation S4 Kalashnikov (unnamed) Karem Butterfly KARI PAV Kármán XK-1 Kitty Hawk Cora Kitty Hawk Flyer Kitty Hawk Flyer (prototype) Lilium Jet Malloy Hoverbike Moller Skycar M400 Napoleon Aero VTOL Neoptera eOpter Neva Aerospace AirQuadOne PAVX PAV-UL Ultralight Piasecki eVTOL Pipistrel (unnamed) PteroDynamics Transwing Pop.Up Next Ray Research Dart Flyer Ray Research VTOL Aircraft Sabrewing Draco-2 Sikorsky VERT SKYLYS Aircraft AO Skypod Aerospace Skypod Starling Jet Supervolant Pegasus Terrafugia TF-2 Uber eCRM Urban Aeronautics CityHawk VerdeGo Aero PAT200 Vertiia Vickers WAVE eVTOL Vimana (unnamed) Volocopter VC200 / 2X VRCO NeoXCraft VTOL Aviation Abhiyaan Workhorse SureFly XTI Aircraft Trifan 600 Zee Aero Z-P2 Zenith Altitude EOPA (updated June 11, 2018)