Founded by Berkant Goksel, Electrofluidsystems is an aerospace company based in Germany. The company is designing a family of hybrid-electric vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft starting with package delivery drones and then passenger aircraft. The goal is to bring the small package delivery drones to the market by the end of 2021 but these are also being used as 1/6 scale models and technology demonstrators for the larger passenger models.
The shape of the aircraft for both their drones and passenger hybrid-electric VTOL concept aircraft are based on a stingray, a class of fish called chondrichthyes. The aeronautical design term for the shape of their aircraft is called a blended wing body. Just as birds will fly in a V shape formation to use less energy through drag reduction and increases range, the company plans to use swam technology to take advantage of all the benefits of V formation flying.
The H2PlasmaRay 6.66 concept aircraft has a 6.66 m (~22 feet) wingspan and its wing span length in fact, in the actual name of the the aircraft model. It is a two passenger hybrid-electric VTOL concept aircraft with a maximum take-off-weight (MTOW) of 900 kg (1,984 lbs). Its blended wing body design has a total of 48 electric ducted fans, with 38 electric ducted fans for VTOL flight and 10 electric ducted fans for forward flight.
Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) is one of the key features of this aircraft. DEP means that an aircraft designer can place multiple electric propellers (or in this case, electric ducted fans) on just about anywhere on the fuselage or wings. DEP technology has multiple benefits, including increasing the safety of the aircraft, allowing for VTOL flight and providing much better control of the aircraft.
DEP provides a much greater degree of safety for the passengers because if several electric ducted fans stop working, the remainder of the fans would be able to land the aircraft. In terms of better control of the aircraft, each electric ducted fan is independently controlled by computer, giving the aircraft a much greater greater control in normal or windy conditions. In addition, having VTOL capability allows Urban Air Mobility (UAM) to happen more efficiently because the aircraft can land in parking lots, driveways or grassy areas without the need of passengers to take the time to travel to and from airports.
In the event of a catastrophic failure, the aircraft will also have a ballistic parachute allowing the passengers to land safely. The aircraft has retractable wheeled landing gear and can also land on a runway or road, if necessary.
The PlasmaRay 6.66 will be powered by hydrogen fuel cells and in the future will have the option to be powered by liquid hydrogen fuel cells and/or solid state batteries. The company will be ready to switch to batteries in production aircraft, once solid state batteries are being manufactured with a high degree of quality control and can store enough electricity for urban flights.
Electrofluidsystems has already has developed specific names for each PlasmaRay VTOL model based on the power source of the aircraft.
- H2PlasmaRay 6.66 (Power source: Standard hydrogen fuel cells)
- LH2PlasmaRay 6.66 (Power source: Liquid hydrogen fuel cells)
- PlasmaRay 6.66 (Power source: Solid state battery)
- Aircraft type: Hybrid-electric VTOL (in the future eVTOL)
- Piloting: Pilot optional or autonomous
- Capacity: 2 passengers
- Maximum takeoff weight: 900 kg (1,984 lbs)
- Ducted electric fans: 48 (38 VTOL ducted fans, 10 forward flight ducted fans)
- Electric motors: 48 / 195 mm diameter (Over 7.5 inches in diameter)
- Continous thrust: 950 kg (2,094 lbs) of static thrust in continuous mode
- Top thrust: 1050 kg (2,315 lbs) for a short period of time
- Power source: Hydrogen fuel cells, liquid hydrogen fuel cells, solid state batteries (when they become available.)
- Wing: Blended wing body, 6.66 meters wide (~22 feet wide)
- Landing gear: Retractable wheeled landing gear
- Safety features: Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP), provides safety through redundancy for its passengers and/or cargo. DEP means having multiple propellers and motors on the aircraft so if one or more motors or propellers fail, the other working motors and propellers can safely land the aircraft. In the event of a catastrophic failure, the aircraft will also have a ballistic parachute allowing the passengers to land safely.
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- Article: Plasma Technology Envisioned For Turkish-Design EVTOL, Aviation Week, May 14, 2020
- Article: Electrofluidsystems Reveals Their Vision for Futuristic Hyperfast Flying Wing Package Drones and Air Taxis, Aviation Turkey, Apr. 2020
- Article: This Hydrogen-Powered Flying Saucer Could Be Your Electric Taxi in 5 Years, Robb Report, June 4, 2020
- Video: Panel Speech of B. Goeksel about H2PlasmaRay at the First International Hydrogen Aviation Conference, Electrofluidsystems, Sept. 6, 2020
- Article: Electrofluidsystems shows detailed design of pre-serial PlasmaFalcon and PlasmaRay mini UAV systems, Electrofluidsystems, Sept. 7, 2020