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Doroni Aerospace H1-X (concept design)

Doroni Aerospace H1-X passenger eVTOL concept design aircraft


H1-X (concept design)
Doroni Aerospace
Coral Springs, Florida, USA

Founder and CEO Doron Merdinger started the Doroni company in 2016 because he believes the technology is now here to make the future of traveling clean and wheelless. Merdinger from the start, wants his electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft to be available to purchase by the consumer, businesses and governments. "Why limit the future?," says Merdinger, "Allow everyone to buy these (aircraft)." As of March 2024, Doroni has raised close to $6 million (USA) with over 430 pre-order requests.

The two most important goals for the company is passenger safety and durability of the aircraft. Safety is achieved by having multiple redundancies built into the aircraft, from multiple propellers and avionics, various anti-collision sensors and to a whole aircraft ballistic parachute. While today's conventional aircraft are overly complicated, durability is achieved by greatly reducing the amount of moving parts, keeping the aircraft simplified, using a modular design for easier maintenance and using off-the-shelf components

Additional and important goals for the aircraft will be its ability to function in a variety of climates and windy conditions, to make the aircraft very easy to fly (simpler than driving a car), provide fast advanced air mobility (AAM), make the aircraft affordable to everyone and have no exhaust pollution. The H1 eVTOL aircraft will have multiple ways for controlling the aircraft including piloting, remote controlled piloting and further into the future, using Artificial Intelligence (AI) for autonomous flight.

Instead of using a helicopter or airplane fuselage and then add multiple small electrically powered propellers, the company decided to start with a clean sheet design for their aircraft. The Doroni H1 eVTOL aircraft is not a helicopter or an airplane, it is a new type of aircraft. Doroni has taken the best of all aircraft, designed the aircraft to be as least complicated as possible which increases the safety of the aircraft, reduces with weight of the aircraft, reduces with cost of manufacturing the aircraft, reduces the price of the aircraft and reduces maintenance costs for the aircraft.

The company states their aircraft will be easy to operate and to fly it, the pilot will only need a simple piloting certification which requires a driver's license and a student pilot certificate for Light Sport Aircraft. Its a smart vehicle with advanced electronics such as Wi-Fi enabled, GPS, laser, cameras, barometer and accelerometer. Doroni has estimated they will be test flying the full scale H1 aircraft in 2024.

On June 10, 2021, Space Florida and the Florida Venture Forum announced that Doroni won the 2nd Place prize of $15,000.00 USD at the all-virtual sixth annual 2021 Aerospace Innovation and Tech Forum. Twenty presenting companies were selected from a pool of more than 84+ applicants by a committee of active Florida venture capital investors. Space Florida provided the Accelerating Innovation prize money totaling $100,000.00 USD.

H1-X passenger eVTOL concept design aircraft
The H1-X is a two passenger sleek modern looking eVTOL concept design aircraft made for advanced air mobility (AAM). The aircraft also has the nickname Hummingbird. The aircraft has one pilot and one passenger and has a canopy over the cockpit. There is an intuitive joystick for the pilot to use, it has a takeoff and land push button feature, has a self-stabilizing flight control system, has an autonomous navigation system, has a 360 degree anti-collision capability and is capable of remotely piloted flight.

The company has stated they've spent lots of time and money redesigning the H1 into the H1-X aircraft. They did not want a typical airframe but instead, they wanted a combination of a drone and an airplane. The H1-X has been designed using few single points of failure and to minimize pilot error. The company specifically designed the aircraft to have an intuitive and clear entry and exit way between the wings that also had a safety buffer for the passengers with respect to the propellers. In addition, the ducted propellers will protect passengers and ground crew if they require entering and exiting the aircraft while the propellers are still turning. The ducted propellers also hide the motors and reduce noise from spinning propellers compared to the exposed propellers as on other eVTOL aircraft designs.

The cruise speed is of the aircraft is estimated at 95 mph (153 km/h) and has an expected maximum cruise speed of 120 mph (193 km/h). The range of the aircraft has been calculated to be 60 miles (97 km) with a projected flight time of 45 minutes. The aircraft has a forecasted empty weight of 1,850 lb (839 kg), a planned maximum payload weight of 500 lb (227 kg) and a maximum takeoff weight of 2,350 lb (1,066 kg).

The aircraft has eight VTOL-only ducted propellers, two electric ducted fans for forward flight and has 10 electric motors. The ducted propeller design provides additional efficiency or about 20% more than an aircraft without ducted thrusters, according to the company. Each VTOL propeller duct has aerodynamic fences on the top and bottom of the wings to prevent the air from flowing from the wing into the ducts in forward flight. This will reduce the drag of the aircraft. The aircraft has tandem wings which extends its range.

The fuselage and wings are made from carbon fiber composite for a high-strength and low weight ratio. The wing span is 18.2 ft (5.5 m) and the aircraft can fit inside a two car garage. The only moving parts on the aircraft are the propellers. There are no tilt wings or tilting thrusters which reduces complexity, increasing safety, decreasing manufacturing costs, decreases purchasing cost and reduces future maintenance costs.

The aircraft is powered by battery packs. The company plans on designing and manufacturing their own proprietary battery packs. The battery packs are swappable and can be fully charged in only 25 minutes. The has stated they have designed its charging system to be compatible with standard electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure, ensuring the aircraft can be conveniently charged. As battery technology becomes better and higher battery density is available, the company expects the aircraft will increase its speed, range, flight time and payload weight.

The aircraft has fixed tricycle wheeled landing gear and gains extra lift from having a patented landing gear embedded in the tips of anhedral surfaces. There is also a whole aircraft emergency ballistic parachute in case of an unexpected inflight emergency.

Applications for the aircraft
Doroni is promoting the H1-X for a variety of use such as personal air travel, corporate travel, emergency medical services (EMS), and search and rescue (SAR), firefighting, air cargo and military operations. The company noted the reduced noise levels and low heat signature makes it an attractive aircraft for the military. Militaries can use the H1-X for reconnaissance, personnel transport and other critical missions. The small size of the aircraft makes it attractive for all types of users allowing them to store the vehicle in a relatively small space.

Future developments
The company plans to certify the H1-X as a Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) in the United States under the FAA’s proposed Modernization of Special Airworthiness Certification (MOSAIC) rules. The company also expects the H1-X to have their first deliveries in the second half of 2025.

H1-X front view

H1-X front view

H1-X side view

H1-X side view

H1-X rear view

H1-X rear view


  • Aircraft type: Passenger eVTOL aircraft
  • Piloting: 1 pilot, intuitive joystick, takeoff and land push button feature, autonomous navigation system with 360 degree anti-collision capability, is capable of remotely piloted flight,
  • Capacity: 1 passenger
  • Cruise speed: 95 mph (153 km/h)
  • Maximum cruise speed: 120 mph (193 km/h)
  • Range: 60 m (97 km)
  • Flight time: 45 minutes
  • Empty weight: 1,850 lb (839 kg)
  • Maximum payload weight: 500 lb (227 kg)
  • Maximum takeoff weight: 2,350 lb (1,066 kg)
  • Propellers: 8 VTOL-only ducted propellers, 2 electric ducted fans for forward flight
  • Electric motors: 10 electric motors
  • Power source: Battery packs
  • Fuselage: Carbon fiber composite
  • Window: Canopy over cockpit
  • Wings: Tandem wings
  • Wing span: 18.2 ft (5.5 m)
  • Landing gear: Fixed tricycle wheeled landing gear with the rear struts
  • Safety features: Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) means having multiple propellers (or electric ducted fans) and multiple electric motors on an aircraft so if one or more propellers (or electric ducted fans) or some electric motors fail, the other working propellers (or electric ducted fans) and electric motors can safely land the aircraft. DEP provides safety through redundancy for its passengers or cargo. There are also redundancies of critical components in the sub-systems of the aircraft providing safety through redundancy for its passengers or cargo. Having multiple redundant systems on any aircraft decreases having any single point of failure. There is also a whole aircraft emergency ballistic parachute in case of an unexpected inflight emergency.

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