Volocopter's VoloCity eVTOL multicopter, taking off, Germany, 2019.

VoloCity
Volocopter GmbH
Bruschal, Germany
www.volocopter.com

Volocopter GmbH was founded in 2011 in Karlsruhe, Germany by Alexander Zosel and Stephen Wolf with the intent of making an electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing (eVTOL) multicopter aircraft for fast and efficient urban travel. The company was known as “e-volo GmbH” until July 2017 and its name is now Volocopter GmbH. It has been reported that the company has raised over $75 million Euros from it’s beginning up to September 2019.

Currently based in Bruschal, Germany, the company has created the Volocopter VC1, VC2, VC200 and 2X flying prototypes and as of November 2019, these prototypes have collectively made over 1,000 test flights. The most recent Volocopter model is the VoloCity eVTOL multicopter aircraft and has been created for the company’s first production model.

The 4th generation VoloCity aircraft has been redesigned with notable changes such as making a more modern and streamlined airframe with wrap around windows, newly designed and lowered landing skids making entry and exit from the aircraft easier, the beams which hold the propellers are more aerodynamic, housings within the beam structure have been added to protect the electric motors, a rear stabilizer has been added for increased lift and to provide more stability during forward flight, and the company has increased the redundancy in critical systems.

The VoloCity has 18 small fixed-pitched propellers and 18 electric motors on top the beam structure which keeps the aircraft noise to a minimum making a quiet and pleasant warm sound, according to the company, and hovering at 75 meters has a sound of only 65 dB(A). Flight control is made by varying the speed of each 18 propellers independently.

The eVTOL aircraft can fly at speeds 100 km/h (62 mph) with a range of 35 km (~22 miles). The batteries can be changed-out in about 5 minutes allowing turn around times to be kept to a minimum, allowing almost continuous service of the aircraft. The company plans to manufacture the aircraft, operate the taxi service, create an app for its customers, build the Voloports throughout urban areas for safe take-offs and landings and include international airports as debarking and destination points. The company has stated they will not be selling the aircraft to consumers.

The mission of the urban air taxi is to transport passengers and luggage from point A to B within a defined urban metropolitan area at a price that is competitive with alternative transportation modes.

Safety & Certification: Urban air taxis need to be as safe as any other commercial aircraft and consequently be designed to meet equivalent safety standards.

Noise Emissions: In order to fly in the city and take-off/land in populated areas, the urban air taxi will have to comply with demanding noise restrictions to achieve public acceptance.

Range & Speed: The air taxi needs to be able to cover the most popular high-traffic routes in major cities, like the airport to city-center route. These trips should be covered at a reasonably high speed in order to save time compared to ground transportation alternatives.

Operating Costs: To enable a viable and scalable business that addresses a meaningful customer base, air taxi operating costs should be low enough to offer competitively-priced transportation services.

Number of Seats: The number of passenger seats is a key design driver and needs to match the needs of the urban air taxi mission.

Design for Usability: Passengers need to be able to embark, travel, and disembark comfortably and safely. This will entail design requirements for cabin noise levels, vibration, climatic conditioning, perceived safety, etc.

— White Paper: Pioneering The Urban Air Taxi Revolution, 1.0, Volocopter, Jun. 6, 2019

Volocopter Safety Design

Volocopter views that safety and simplicity are closely related and that simplicity will also help certify their new eVTOL aircraft. The fixed-pitched propellers have no tilting mechanisms and the flight computer independently changes the speed of each motor to achieve take-offs, forward flight and landings. This type of flight architecture makes the aircraft more simplified and robust. In the event of any motor failures, the aircraft can fly and land safely with only twelve (12) motors working. Volocopter has multi-redundant systems including, propellers, motors, batteries, electronics, displays and more, to ensure the highest degree of reliability and safety.

Noise Emissions

Volocopter has reported their eVTOL aircraft when hovering at 75 meters (246 ft) has a noise level of 65 dB(A). A helicopter with large rotors make more noise than small propellers. Smaller propellers have slower tip speeds which reduces noise coming from the propeller tips. Stated another way, the company has said that multiple weak propeller sound sources spread the noise over a broad frequency spectrum, which is less disturbing to the human ear than one large noise source. Volocopter says their eVTOL air taxi has such reduced noise, that it does not add to the present noise pollution of large megacities.

Range and Speed

Volocopter recongiznes the Uber Elevate white paper suggesting that urban air taxis will mainly be used by so-called “mega commuters,” or people who commute more than 160 km (99 miles) per day. However, Volocopter takes a different view because there are a multitude of urban air taxi use cases that exist globally. The company says many timesaving trips can be operated more efficiently and economically with limited infrastructure for much shorter ranges. Examples include consumers needing air taxi service to airports, train stations, hotels, business offices, shopping malls and other personal use.

Instead of Volocopter focusing on an aircraft made strictly for daily commutes to work, they are focusing on shuttling passengers for a wide variety of inner-city air taxi missions. Volocopter’s research shows that inner-city air taxi service will have the highest demand than commuter trips and will therefore be the most profitable source of urban air travel.

Operating Costs

Volocopter stresses that non-pitched rotors, electric motors, fixed landing skids, carbon composite airframe, and the low cost of electricity will keep costs exceptionally low for the passenger. By keeping their aircraft as simplified as possible, increases the reliability of the aircraft, lowers the cost of manufacturing the aircraft, keeps the annual maintenance to a minimum, and keeps operating costs to a minimum which translates to an affordable cost to the passenger.

Design Usability

VoloCity’s usability can be seen from the airframe’s design for ease of entry and exit from the aircraft, to using more than 100 microprocessors to ensure perfect stability and control of the aircraft during vertical ascent, decent or cruise flight with an intuitively controlled control stick. If the control stick is released by the pilot, the aircraft will automatically hold its current position. Since batteries can easily be changed out between flights, each flight can use fully charged batteries allowing for the full flight range of the aircraft including an emergency reserve and no emissions.

Summary

The Volocopter has been designed to comply with the airworthiness requirements and noise restrictions for intra-city commercial air transportation and not as a daily work commuter aircraft. Volocity can service 93% of the world’s largest cities for transportation to international airports and other daily intra-city air taxi trips efficiently, safe and fast which can’t be accomplished by ground transportation.

Volocopter will be manufacturing the aircraft, running the air taxi service, building Voloports, allow passengers to request a flight through an app, will not be selling their aircraft to individuals and will offer air taxi urban travel at competitive prices. VoloCity has the capacity for 1 pilot, 1 passenger and their luggage, and in the future expects to operate their eVTOL aircraft autonomously. The company has been in talks with several cities around the world and expects to have their service up and running in the next several years.

Specifications:

  • Aircraft type: All electric vertical take-off and landing multicopter
  • Pilot: 1
  • Passengers: 1 plus luggage
  • Future autonomous mode: 2 passengers, luggage and no pilot
  • Certification goal: EASA SC-VTOL, category enhanced
  • Power type: Electric / batteries
  • Maximum take-off mass (MTOM): 900 kg (1,984 lbs)
  • Maximum payload: 200 kg (441 lbs)
  • Operating weight empty (OWE): 700 kg (1,543 lbs)
  • Range: 35 km (22 miles)
  • Cruise speed: 100 km/h (62 mph)
  • Maximum Airspeed: 110 km/h (68 mph)
  • Rotors: 18 fixed-pitch rotors
  • Motors: 18 brushless DC electric motor (BLDC)
  • Power supply: 9 battery packs
  • Battery type: Lithium-ion
  • Battery system: Exchangeable rechargeable battery packs
  • Battery swapping time: 5 minutes
  • Fuselage: Composite
  • Overall height: 2.5 m (8 ft, 2 in)
  • Diameter of the rotor rim including rotors: 11.3 m (37 ft)
  • Diameter of the rotor rim excluding rotors: 9.3 m (30 ft, 6 in)
  • Diameter of a single rotor: 2.3 m (7 ft, 6 in)
  • Noise emissions: At 75 meters (246 ft), 65 dB(A)
  • Windows: Wrap around windows providing passengers with spectacular views
  • Landing gear: Skid type
  • Safety features: Redundancy in computer software, electronic equipment, batteries, propellers, and more. The propellers are above aircraft keeping them safely away from people hitting them with their heads. Aircraft can still fly safety with 12 rotors working.

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Tags:

Volocopter VoloCity, Wingless Multicopter, eVTOL, Production prototype, 2 Passengers, AirTaxi, Piloted, Autonomous, VFS Member